Answer for Compare management practices (POSLC) for key countries


JAPANESE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE:
In the post-World War II time a set of Japanese social examples and managerial practices came to be referred to all things considered as the Japanese administration style or Japanese administration methods. A significant number of these strategies were credited with helping vault the Japanese economy to its status as the world’s second biggest, behind just the United States, and with making Japanese organizations, especially in the assembling division, more aggressive than their global partners. In the wake of Japan’s delayed and challenging battle with subsidence all through a great part of the 1990s, be that as it may, numerous spectators both inside and outside Japan—have called into inquiry the viability of some conventional Japanese administration rehearses. Subsequently, at the beginning of the 21st century Japanese administration methods are like never before in a state of flux, as researchers and business pioneers much the same rethink which practices work and which don’t.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF JAPANESE MANAGEMENT:
• SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS
• LIFETIME EMPLOYMENT
• SENIORITY SYSTEM
• CONTINUOUS TRAINING
• EMPHASIS ON GROUP WORK
• DECISION MAKING
• COMPLICATED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
• FATHER LEADERSHIP
• GOOD BENEFITS FOR EMPLOYEES
• SIMPLE AND FLEXIBLE ORGANIZATION
1-SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS Few Japanese go to master’s level college and graduate preparing ready to go yet rate is uncommon on the grounds that there are just 30 top business universities who pick up concession and study in that schools just those learner have the opportunity to work in expansive organization. That extensive organization conduct focused examination. Those learner passed the examination they can addition employments yet organization give their preparation.
2- LIFE TIME EMPLOYMENT Lifetime business alludes to recruitment of representatives promptly upon graduation era of livelihood until retirement, and obligatory retirement. In spite of the fact that there is no formal contract, executives and representatives have an unwritten common comprehension with respect to their desire about the occupation. Under lifetime business a worker uses his whole living up to expectations existence with a solitary undertaking. This aides produce an inclination of employer stability in the representative and an inclination of having a place belonging-ness towards the venture.
3- SENIORITY SYSTEM This idea is nearly identified with the idea of lifetime job organizations after this idea, give benefits to more established representatives who have been with it for quite a while. Advancement and compensation expands are focused around representatives length of administration in the organization, not work execution.
4-CONTINUOUS TRAINING-The secret of the success of Japanese managers may lie in “continuous training” In western organizations, employees receive training only to acquire a new skill or to move to a new position. In Japanese firms however, every young manager has a godfather, who is never his boss or anyone in the direct line of authority. The godfather is not part of the top management, but is highly respected by others.
5- DECISION-MAKING The practice of managerial decision-making in Japan is built on the concept that change and new ideas should come primarily from personnel belonging to lower levels in the hierarchy. Thus in Japan lower level employees prepare proposals for higher-level personnel. The ‘ringi system’ refers to decision-making by consensus. The word ringi consists of two parts ‘rin’ which means submitting a proposal to one’s superior and getting his approval, and ‘gi’ meaning deliberations and decisions.
6-COMPLICATED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION When set of expectations are not decently characterized and when errands are performed by gatherings, it gets to be hard to assess individual occupation execution equitably. The assessment of laborers and directors in Japanese organizations takes quite a while up to ten years and obliges the utilization of qualitative and quantitative data about execution.
JAPANESE MANAGEMENT
PLANNING
• Long term orientation
• Collective decision making with consensus
• Involvement of many people in preparing and making the decision
• Decisions flow bottom to top
• Slow decision making and fast implementation of the decision
ORGANIZING
• Collective responsibility and accountability
• Ambiguity of decision responsibility
• Informal organization structure
• Well-known common organization culture and philosophy; competitive sprite toward other enterprises
STAFFING
• Young people hired out of school; hardly any mobility of people among companies
• Slow promotion through the ranks
• Loyalty to the company
• Very infrequent performance evaluation for new employees
• Promotion base on multiple criteria
LEADING
• Leader acting as a social facilitator and group member.
• Paternalistic style
• Common values facilitating cooperation
• Bottom-up communication
CONTROLLING
• Control by peers
• Control focus on group performance
• Saving face
• Extensive use of quality control circles.
CONCLUSION
The investigation of Japanese and Indian administration, the Japanese administration is picking up critical-ness in light of the fact that it manages the procedure of arranging, sorting out, staffing, heading and controlling is superior to Indian administration.